What is the reason that Obi-Wan lied to Luke by telling him that Darth Vader killed his father?
In the Star Wars movie A New Hope (1977), when Luke meets Obi-Wan in the first time, Obi-Wan takes luke to his home. Then Luke and Obi-Wan have the below conversation:
LUKE SKYWALKER - How did my father die?
BEN (Obi-Wan Kenobi) - A young Jedi named Darth Vader, who was a pupil of mine until he turned to evil, helped the Empire hunt down and destroy the Jedi Knights. He betrayed and murdered your father. Now the Jedi are all but extinct. Vader was seduced by the dark side of the Force.
LUKE SKYWALKER - The Force?
BEN (Obi-Wan Kenobi) - Well, the Force is what gives a Jedi his power. It's an energy field Created by all living things. It Surrounds us and penetrates us. It binds the galaxy together.
As per the above conversation, what is the reason that Obi-Wan lied to Luke by telling him that Darth Vader killed his father although Anakin Skywalker and Darth Vader are the same person?
Out of universe, it's simply that Lucas hadn't written (and most likely hadn't even thought up) that particular part of the story at the time.
In universe, Kenobi was driven to obfuscate by two things:
he regretted his part in Anakin's downfall and couldn't own up to it to Luke
he didn't want Luke to follow his father
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Why did Obi-Wan tell Luke Vader killed his father?If Luke knew that Darth Vader was his father, Obi-Wan might have thought there would be a risk that Luke might (even over time) begin to feel a bit of family loyalty, and begin to sympathise with Vader a little. By telling him that he killed his father, there is no chance of this - quite the opposite.
Does Obi-Wan lie to Luke?A Return of the Jedi deleted scene reveals why Obi-Wan lied about Anakin's death, giving new meaning to the Jedi's intentions and improving his arc. The explanation for why Obi-Wan Kenobi lied to Luke Skywalker about Anakin Skywalker's death is revealed in a Return of the Jedi deleted scene.
Did Obi-Wan manipulate Luke?Much like the relationship between Anakin and Palpatine, Obi-Wan used Luke's faith in him as a mentor to manipulate his allegiance. Luke was young and a dreamer just like his father and his allegiance could have been swayed either way.
Why Didn't Obi-Wan Tell Luke the TRUTH About Darth Vader? (Deleted Scene) - Star Wars Explained
More answers regarding what is the reason that Obi-Wan lied to Luke by telling him that Darth Vader killed his father?
because in a certain why he wasn't lying as indicated in Return of the Jedi
Luke: Obi-Wan! Why didn't you tell me?
The ghost of Ben Kenobi approaches him through the swamp.
Luke: You told me Vader betrayed and murdered my father.
Ben: You father was seduced by the dark side of the Force. He ceased to be Anakin Skywalker and became Darth Vader. When that happened, the good man who was your father was destroyed. So what I have told you was true... from a certain point of view.
in Obi-wan's view Anakin and Vader aren't the same person and Vader destroyed Anakin. this is also in a way expressed by Padme in Revenge of the Sith when she confronts him on Mustafar
Anakin: Don't you see, we don't have to run away anymore. I have brought peace to the Republic. I am more powerful than the Chancellor. I can overthrow him, and together you and I can rule the galaxy. Make things the way we want them to be.
Padme: I don't believe what I'm hearing . . . Obi-Wan was right. You've changed.
Anakin: I don't want to hear any more about Obi-Wan. The Jedi turned against me. Don't you turn against me.
Padme: I don't know you anymore. Anakin, you're breaking my heart. I'll never stop loving you, but you are going down a path I can't follow.
to Padme the person she was talking to wasn't the Anakin she knew
Revenge of the Sith:
Obi-Wan: And what of the boy?
Yoda: To Tatooine. To his family, send him.
Obi-Wan: I will take the child and watch over him.
A New Hope:
Luke: And if these new droids do work out, I want to transmit my application to the Academy this year.
Kenobi has been watching Luke all the boy's life, he knows Luke is intending to join the Empire to escape life on Tatooine. This will bring him into Vader's orbit, the last thing Kenobi wants, so he lies.
This is just my take on the Original Trilogy, but I think the reason why Obi-Wan lied to Luke in A New Hope, is because he didn't want Luke to go down the same path that Anakin went on; to avoid becoming a Sith. Thing is, rather than feed Luke bits and pieces about Anakin, he could've just come clean and told Luke what really happened and how he failed him as a teacher and that he was mostly responsible for Anakin's fall to the Dark Side. Not wait until Return of The Jedi, after Yoda dies of old age and THEN decides to spill the beans.
Even ignoring the fact that it wasn't written yet, Obi-Wan still has a good reason.
Obi-wan wanted Luke to fight against the Empire and The Dark Side. To this end, he might have considered it better to "Bend" the truth a little and tell Luke that Darth Vader killed his father rather than that Darth Vader was his father.
If Luke knew that Darth Vader was his father, Obi-Wan might have thought there would be a risk that Luke might (even over time) begin to feel a bit of family loyalty, and begin to sympathise with Vader a little. By telling him that he killed his father, there is no chance of this - quite the opposite.
Obi-Wan simply justified this dishonesty to himself, and later to Luke with the "...from a certain point of view" speech.