What was Robb Stark's true motivation in his rebellion against the crown?
As soon as Ned Stark was captured by Joffrey, Robb Stark gathered all the leaders of the most powerful houses of the North and started marching towards King's Landing, apparently motivated by the captivity and then death of his father. What were his true motivations anyway?
Is this rebellion meant to turn the North into an independent realm which can be referred by Robb been called "King in the North" by his allies, or simply to take the Iron Throne?
We know that he sent his mother, Catelyn Stark to propose an alliance with Stannis and Renly who were also involved in the race to the throne. So maybe at that time, he had no reason to have any claim regarding the Iron Throne, but it seems that things get more serious as the story goes on and that he eventually, before his death, wanted to become the "one true king" like Stannis did. So in this case, what changed his mind?
I haven't read the books, so I might be wrong on this but here is what is known from the show.
Rob started marching south with his army after Eddard was captured and imprisoned. Their first objective was to free Eddard. However after Joffrey gave the order to kill Eddard he wanted revenge against the Lannisters for the death of his father. And also keep in mind as far as Robb knew, the Lannisters are guilty for crippling his brother Bran and also tried to kill him afterwards.
Robb sent his mother to negotiate an alliance with Renly not Stannis, since at the time Renly had the largest army (of the rebeling kings). He invited her to go along with him when he met with Stannis. And at that meeting Stannis proposed an alliance to her due to Eddards loyalty to him (since Eddard insisted that Stannis is the rightfull heir after Robert).
Robb never wanted the Iron Throne or rule over the seven kingdoms, only Joffrey's head. Which he also mentiones to Talisa when he meets her for the first time (4:21). Due to the course of the series it is never indicated that his motives changed.
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Why did Robb Stark start the war?After his father is arrested for apparent treason, Robb summons the Northern bannermen and assembles an army of 20,000 in an effort to rescue his father and aid the Riverlands, which have come under attack by the armies of House Lannister.
Did Robb Stark want the Iron Throne?Robb doesn't want the Iron Throne, just revenge on Joffrey for his father's death. She is shocked to learn he doesn't care which king takes the throne after they defeat Joffrey (having declared for neither of the Baratheon brothers). He just wants them to leave the north alone afterward.
The Entire Life Of Robb Stark
More answers regarding what was Robb Stark's true motivation in his rebellion against the crown?
Yes, revenge was the catalyst, but there was also another factor: Northern nationalism.
Robb's march south was unquestionably driven by the desire to avenge his father and overthrow the monarch who executed him; however, revenge alone is not what drove his separatist rebellion. After all, his father also rebelled against the king, but with the goal of installing a new monarch, not rejecting the rule of King's Landing and leaving the Seven Kingdoms altogether.
After Rob's initial victories, his banner men found their nationalist fervor roused and they cheered Rob as "The King in the North," harkening back to the days before the Targaryen dynasty when the North was its own Kingdom and not under the rule of a Southern king. Being more rash and less wise than his father--who remained loyal to his friend Robert during and after his rebellion--Rob got caught up in this rush of Northern nationalism and donned the mantle of King in the North with a separate, free North becoming one of his goals.
Robb Stark's "true" motivation is exactly what he is saying in the movie. Starks are very simple, temper driven, quite exactly as Littlefinger said:
"Ah, the Starks! Quick tempers, slow minds"
It is perfectly pictured in his conversation with Talisa in S03E04, when he reveals that his only goal is to avenge his father's death:
-You're going to kill Joffrey? -If the gods give me strength. -And then what? -l don't know. We'll go back to Winterfell.
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